Goods from different countries of origin may have different duty rates, both positive and negative. All or part of the preferential originating countries enjoy exemption or reduction of customs duties, which every importer should take into account. 
Here are a few examples:

Tariff number 87120070990 – Bicycles

Origin Argentines – 15% (regular customs duty)
Origin Turkey – 0% (preferential duty)
Origin China – 15% + 48.5% (regular duty and anti-dumping)

Customs tariff number 61091000100 – T-shirts

Origin India – 9,6% (preferential duty)
Origin Turkey – 0% (preferential duty)
Origin China – 12% (customs duty)

The examples show that the choice of country of origin can mean enormous differences for the calculation.
If you find the 48.5% hard, you can try it with a pallet truck (84279000190), which is just 4% customs duty, but plus 70.80% !!! Anti-dumping!
Preferential agreements between the EU and other countries or associations can come about for a variety of reasons.
In the case of India, for example, attempts are being made to help an economically weaker country.
In the case of Turkey, it is a mutual customs union in which both sides guarantee the other duty to promote trade between countries.
While in the first case one thinks rather of economically weak countries, one should also have in the head on the topic of customs union and free trade also high-tech countries like Japan! Japan has recently ratified a free trade agreement with the EU, whereby goods from Japan are also duty-free.
Of course, such measures can also be used by nations or confederations to the contrary, as a sanction or protection of their own economy. The special duties mentioned in the press, in particular by Trump, and the special charges mentioned above under the term anti-dumping duty, may even make products from certain countries more expensive than the regular customs tariff.

It is always a good idea to check the level of levies during the product and supplier search process using the tariff number via EZT or Taric (see article on tariff number).
If a textile manufacturer in China is 6% cheaper than in Turkey, you still pay too much, as the tariff would be 12% from China and 0% from Turkey! So you do not save 6% but pay 6% on it.

Thus, a thorough search for suitable suppliers can certainly pay off.

As usual … for questions about this or other areas on the subject of customs and import / export, like to contact me and also like to make suggestions on future topics.

Youtube videos are in preparation.